How the EHRC antisemitism report added fire to Labour's simmering civil war
It was easy to miss the true significance of last week’s Equalities and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) report on the British Labour Party and antisemitism amid the furore over the party suspending its former leader, Jeremy Corbyn.
The impression left on the public – aided by yet more frantic media spin – was that the EHRC's 130-page report had confirmed the claims of Corbyn’s critics that on his watch the party had become "institutionally antisemitic". In fact, the watchdog body reached no such conclusion. Its report was far more ambiguous. And its findings – deeply flawed, intentionally vague and glaringly inconsistent as they were – were nowhere near as dramatic as the headlines suggested.
The commission concluded that "there were unlawful acts of harassment and discrimination for which the Labour Party is responsible". Those failings, according to the commission, related to the handling of antisemitism complaints, interference by the leader’s office in the disciplinary procedure, and "unlawful harassment" by two Labour Party “agents”.
None of that seemed to amount to anything like the supposed claims of a "plague" and "tidal wave" of antisemitism that have dominated headlines for five years.
Missing the point
Paradoxically, the equalities commission’s conclusions sounded a lot like Corbyn’s statement that the scale of Labour’s antisemitism problem had been "dramatically overstated". That remark quickly became grounds for the party suspending him.
Paradoxically, the EHRC’s conclusions sounded a lot like Corbyn’s statement that the scale of Labour’s antisemitism problem had been 'dramatically overstated'
So sustained has the furore about "institutional antisemitism" been in Labour that, according to a recent survey by academics Greg Philo and Mike Berry, the British public estimated that on average a third of Labour members had been disciplined for antisemitism – more than 300 times the real figure.
But in the end, the commission could identify only two cases of unlawful antisemitism the party was responsible for. According to the report, there were 18 "borderline" cases, however, "there was not enough evidence to conclude that the Labour Party was legally responsible for the
conduct of the individual."
In response to MEE questions, the EHRC stated that the investigation "sought to determine whether the Labour Party committed a breach of the Equality Act related to Jewish ethnicity or Judaism, to look at what steps the Party had taken to implement the recommendations of previous reports, and to assess whether the party had handled antisemitism complaints lawfully, efficiently and effectively."
Members of the commission, it seems, were quite happy to acquiesce in the public being given the impression that Labour was riddled with antisemitism, however marginal they discovered the phenomenon to be in practice.
Notably, the EHRC avoided attributing responsibility to any named individuals for the party’s failings in handling antisemitism complaints – the most serious charge it levelled. That decision inevitably allowed the blame to be pinned on the former leader. In its statement to MEE, the commission conceded that “the failure of leadership extended across the Labour Party during the period [of] our investigation”.
But in practice, the report and commission have had the effect of pinning the blame squarely on Corbyn. Alasdair Henderson, the commission’s lead investigator, has been quoted as saying "as the leader of the party at the time...Jeremy Corbyn is ultimately accountable and responsible for what happened at that time."
But Corbyn was not responsible for those flawed procedures.
They long predated his election as leader. And further, his ability to influence the complaints procedure for the better was highly limited by the fact that the party’s disciplinary unit was firmly in the hands of a centrist bureaucracy deeply hostile to him.
As Peter Oborne and Richard Sanders, my colleagues at Middle East Eye, have pointed out, there appears to be a rich irony to the fact that these same officials have fashioned themselves as "whistleblowers" when it is they who are alleged in a leaked report to be among those responsible for the biggest failings noted by the commission. It was these officials who helped create the dysfunctional, politicised climate within the Labour Party that made it possible for the EHRC to take on its 18-month investigation – the first into a major political party.
However, those officials have always fiercely rejected the leaked report's allegations claiming that their work was hampered by continual interference from the leader's office.
The watchdog body’s second finding against Labour follows from – and starkly contradicts – the first. Corbyn’s team are blamed for "political interference" in the complaints procedure, creating the risk of "indirect discrimination”.
Out of 70 complaints it studied, it found 23 instances over a three-year period where there was “political interference” by the leader’s office and other actors in the handling of antisemitism cases.
In most of these, Corbyn’s staff were seeking to expedite stalled antisemitism proceedings that were causing – and meant to cause – the party a great deal of embarrassment. They were trying to do exactly what critics like the Board of Deputies of British Jews demanded of them.
Indeed, the EHRC report accepted that, in some cases, Corbyn staff interference catalysed action.
Buried in the report is the astonishing admission by the commission that, among the 70 sampled cases, it found “concerns about fairness” towards 42 Labour Party members who had been investigated for antisemitism. In others words, it was those accused of antisemitism, rather than those making the accusations, who were being mistreated by Labour – either by the disciplinary unit hostile to Corbyn or by Corbyn’s own staff as they tried to speed up the resolution of cases.
Damned if you do, or don’t
In the report, the commission holds Corbyn’s team to an impossible standard. Labour was expected to demonstrate "zero tolerance" towards antisemitism, but Corbyn’s team is now accused of discriminatory actions for having tried to make good on that pledge.
Exemplifying this inconsistency, the equalities watchdog found that Ken Livingstone, a former mayor of London, committed “unlawful harassment”. At the same time, the commission castigates Corbyn’s office for trying to get firmer action taken against him.
In another case, Corbyn’s inner circle expressed concern – after requests for advice by the disciplinary unit itself – that the complaints procedure risked being discredited if Jewish members continued to be investigated for antisemitism, typically after criticising Israel.
This looks like a classic example of "Damned if you do and damned if you don’t".
When questioned on this point by MEE, the commission responded: "The inappropriateness of political interference in antisemitism complaints is not necessarily about the outcome that it led to, but rather the contamination of the fairness of the process." This was a matter of "public confidence".
But “public confidence” has been quietly repurposed: it no longer chiefly concerns a lack of seriousness from Labour about tackling antisemitism; it denotes instead Labour being too hasty and, in some cases, aggressive in tackling antisemitism.
Similarly, the use of the term "indirect discrimination" is deeply counter-intuitive in the context of the commission’s remit to investigate racism. "Discrimination" often appears to refer to efforts by Corbyn’s circle to ensure that Jewish party members, whether those accused of antisemitism or those doing the accusing, were treated sensitively – even if that came at the cost of fairness to non-Jewish members.
Hounded out of Labour
The elephant in the room ignored by the commission is that there was a "hostile environment" for everyone in the party, not just Jewish members, because of this civil war.
The elephant in the room ignored by the commission is that there was a 'hostile environment' for everyone in the party, not just Jewish members, because of this civil war
Did Jewish and non-Jewish members accused of being antisemites – often after criticising Israel or observing that there were efforts to rid the party of the left under cover of antisemitism allegations – feel welcomed in the Labour Party? Or did they feel hounded and stigmatised?
With this in mind, it is worth noting that the most high-profile case of former Labour MP Chris Williamson is absent from the report’s major criticisms.
Williamson, a Corbyn ally, was forced out last year after suggesting that Labour had conceded too much ground to those critics claiming the party was beset by antisemitism. Labour, he argued, had thereby made those claims seem more plausible.
The commission repeatedly suggests in the report that comments of this kind constitute what it calls an “antisemitic trope”. Many party members have faced investigation and suspension or expulsion for making similar observations. Indeed, Williamson’s remark closely echoes last week’s comment by Corbyn that the scale of antisemitism in Labour had been “dramatically overstated”. That led to Corbyn’s suspension.
But unusually, Williamson challenged his treatment by Labour in the high court last year and won. After he was sent a draft of the report, Williamson threatened legal action against the equalities commission for what he termed “an assortment of risible and offensive comments”.
Rather than ignoring antisemitism, Labour too often hounded people like Williamson out of the party on the flimsiest of evidence
Apparently as a result, he is not named alongside the two officials criticised in the report - Livingstone and Pam Bromley. In fact, again paradoxically, he is mentioned chiefly in relation to “political interference” in Labour’s complaints procedure – because, in scandalous fashion, he was suspended, then reinstated, then quickly suspended again.
The abuses suffered by Williamson serve to show once again just how perverse the media narrative about Labour’s treatment of antisemitism so often was. Rather than ignoring antisemitism, Labour too often hounded people like Williamson out of the party on the flimsiest of evidence.
It was exactly this kind of “political interference” against Williamson and others that suggests antisemitism was indeed weaponised in the Labour Party.
Free speech ignored
The commission is legally required to weigh and balance competing rights – to free speech and to protection from racism. Such considerations are especially tricky when examining the conduct of a major political party.
The equalities watchdog has to take account of Article 10 of the European Convention of Human Rights – protecting freedom of speech – that is also enshrined in UK law. But the commission’s findings appear to clash fundamentally with respect for free speech. Any reasonable reading of the law suggests that a political party should be investigated only when it flagrantly and systematically breaks anti-racism laws. But the report itself shows that those conditions were nowhere near being met.
The commission itself makes this point inadvertently in the report. It states that Article 10 protections apply even if comments are offensive and provocative, and that this protection is further “enhanced” in the case of elected politicians.
It adds: “Article 10 will protect Labour Party members who, for example, make legitimate criticisms of the Israeli government, or express their opinions on internal party matters, such as the scale of antisemitism within the party.” It then proceeds to ignore that protection entirely in the report, as the Labour Party has done once again in its suspension of Corbyn.
A reasonable reading of Article 10 would suggest too that, in weighing the Labour Party’s approach to antisemitism, the commission was obligated to offer a clear, precise and non-controversial definition of antisemitism. That definition would then have set the bar for the commission to determine whether significant proof had been found of antisemitism in the party’s practices to justify placing limitations on free speech.
But that bar could not be determined because the commission never properly set out what it meant by antisemitism. Instead the commission has shouldered its way into a factional war inside a major political party, and one in which language itself – with all its ambiguities – has become deeply contested.
In response to these criticisms, the commission noted that the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance definition – widely criticised for conflating criticism of Israel with antisemitism but forced on Corbyn when he was Labour leader – "is not legally binding". It added: “We note the approach of the Home Affairs Select Committee, namely that it is not antisemitic to hold the Israeli government to the same standards as other liberal democracies, to criticise the Israeli government, or to take a particular interest in the Israeli government’s policies or actions, without additional evidence to suggest antisemitic intent."
That definition, of course, leaves out in the cold many on the party’s left, including its Jewish left, who believe Israel is not a liberal democracy and does not even aspire to be one, as the passage of Israel’s Jewish Nation-State Law made clear in 2018.
That law excluded a fifth of Israel’s population who are not Jewish, from the state’s self-definition. In imposing ideological assumptions of this kind on a political party, the commission itself appears to be the one most guilty of “political interference”.
Lack of evidence
Far from resolving tensions, the EHRC report accentuates the party’s festering, irreconcilable narratives about antisemitism. It adds considerable fire to the party’s simmering civil war.
Corbyn’s supporters argued that the claims of an especial antisemitism problem in Labour amounted to an ideologically motivated and evidence-free smear
Corbyn’s supporters argued that the claims of an especial antisemitism problem in Labour amounted to an ideologically motivated and evidence-free smear. When Corbyn tried to defend his record last week, arguing that the scale of the antisemitism problem had been “dramatically overstated for political reasons”, he was suspended.
But he and his allies have solid evidence to justify that claim.
First, they note, surveys demonstrate that Labour supporters were less likely to express antisemitic attitudes than Conservative supporters or the general public. A poll by the Economist magazine last year showed that while those on the far-left in the UK had by far the most critical views of Israel, they were also the least likely to engage in antisemitism.
Second, Corbyn's supporters can point to the party’s own statistics that show only a minuscule proportion of members were ever referred to the party’s disciplinary procedure for antisemitism. That was the case even after pro-Israel groups like the Campaign Against Antisemitism and the Jewish Labour Movement scoured social media accounts trying to find examples to discredit Corbyn, and after they managed to browbeat the party into adopting a new IHRA definition of antisemitism that conflated hatred of Jews with criticism of Israel.
And third, of those who faced investigation for antisemitism, a significant proportion were Jewish members outspoken in their criticism of Israel. Many Jews vocally opposed to Israel are active in the Labour Party, including nowadays in a group called Jewish Voice for Labour. By obscuring the fact that many of Israel’s harshest critics in Labour were Jewish, the media and pro-Israel partisans handed Corbyn’s opponents a convenient whip to beat him with.
Again, questioned on the report’s failure to address the lack of evidence, the commission’s statement to MEE reiterated the point that the report “did not focus on an assessment of the scale of antisemitism in the party”. And, seemingly confirming the criticisms of groups like Jewish Voice for Labour that there very few antisemitism cases among a membership of over 500,000, the statement added: "The complaints included more than 220 allegations of antisemitism within the Labour Party, dating back to 2011."
The commission’s report avoids addressing any of this evidence, which would have undermined the rationale for its investigation and suggested its political nature. But if Corbyn’s supporters are right and there was little tangible evidence for claiming Labour had an especial antisemitism problem – aside, inevitably, from a small number of antisemites in its ranks – how did the clamour grow so big?
By obscuring the fact that many of Israel’s harshest critics in Labour were Jewish, the media and pro-Israel partisans handed Corbyn’s opponents a convenient whip to beat him with
Here the EHRC allies with Corbyn’s critics in advancing a self-rationalising theory. It appears to accept that anyone who denies Labour had a distinct antisemitism problem under Corbyn – or claims that Labour had no more of a problem than the rest of British society – thereby proves that they are an antisemite.
But in reality there are other, entirely credible reasons about why the antisemitism claims against Labour were, as Corbyn observed, "dramatically overstated for political reasons", or were even outright smears.
Corbyn was indeed targeted by pro-Israel groups for very understandable reasons, from their partisan perspective. He was the first British party leader within reach of power to unapologetically support the Palestinian cause and threaten Israel with serious repercussions for its continuing oppression of the Palestinian people.
But the claims of pro-Israel groups only gained traction politically because, in concert, he was being targeted more generally by the neoliberal establishment. That included the media, the Conservative Party and, particularly damagingly, the still-dominant "Blairite" wing of his own party, which hankered for a return to Labour’s glory days under former leader Tony Blair.
They all wanted to keep Corbyn from reaching No 10. Ultimately, antisemitism proved the most effective of a range of smears they tried on Corbyn for size. The goal was to discredit him in the eyes of British voters to ensure he could never implement a socialist platform that would challenge establishment interests head-on.
'Part of government machine'
In its statement to MEE, the EHRC insisted it was an "independent regulator" that took its "political impartiality incredibly seriously".
The commission, however, gives every appearance of being the epitome of an establishment body, full of corporate businesspeople and lawyers honoured by the Queen.
Back in June, Corbyn noted to Middle East Eye that Conservative governments had slashed the commission’s budget by nearly three-quarters over the past decade. The commission was, Corbyn observed, now “part of the government machine”. There have been widespread concerns that the watchdog might wish to curry favour with the government to avoid further cuts.
That might explain why, after making the incendiary decision to investigate the opposition Labour Party, the commission refused to carry out a similar investigation of the Conservatives, even though the evidence suggests that both Islamophobia and antisemitism are far more prevalent in the ruling party than Labour.
A beginning, not an end
Some in Labour may hope that the report will draw to a close the party’s troubling antisemitism chapter. They could not be more wrong.
Armed now with the blessing of the equalities commission, and emboldened by Corbyn’s suspension, the Campaign Against Antisemitism immediately sent a letter to the Labour Party demanding the scalps of a dozen more MPs, including Angela Rayner, the party’s deputy leader.
The Jewish Chronicle, which has been pushing for years the claim that Labour is riddled with antisemitism, published a leading article that the commission report “marks not an end but a beginning”.
The commission itself recommends that undefined “Jewish community stakeholders” be put in charge of training Labour Party officials about antisemitism. In practice, those stakeholders are likely to be the Board of Deputies and the Jewish Labour Movement, both of which have been keen to conflate antisemitism with entirely unrelated criticism of Israel.
In a now-familiar authoritarian move, Labour’s general secretary, David Evans, has warned local parties not to discuss the report or question its findings. And Corbyn’s successor, Keir Starmer, has threatened that anyone suggesting that antisemitism in Labour has been “exaggerated” or used for factional purposes – as even the commission implies in its report – will be summarily punished by the party.
Labour officials are reported to be already preparing to investigate expressions of support for Corbyn on social media, while MPs sympathetic to Corbyn are reportedly considering whether to jump before they are pushed out of the party. Len McCluskey, head of Unite, the biggest union donating to Labour, has spoken of “chaos” ahead. He warned: "A split party will be doomed to defeat."
He is likely right. The civil war in Labour is on course to get worse. And that – as Britain reels under the glaring mismanagement and corruption of a Conservative government – will make some very happy indeed.
The views expressed in this article belong to the author and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Middle East Eye.